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LONDON HER MAJESTY’S STATIONERY OFFIC

1969

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY |

:

ANNUAL REPORT

UGANDA

1959

FRONTISPIECE :

The River Nile at Bujagali, four-and-a-half miles downstream from the Owen Falls Dam. It is here that the Uganda Electricity Board has long-term plans for a second dam and _ power station.

[Reproduced by courtesy of Barbara Eades]

Great aa Paes Cele g Cpe ioe,

UGANDA

——

Report for the year 1959

: LONDON so HER MAJESTY’S STATIONERY OFFICE 1960

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

Chapter I Chapter II

Chapter III

Chapter IV Chapter V

Chapter VI

CONTENTS

PART ONE Page GENERAL REVIEW . ; ; ; : 5 PART TWO POPULATION . . ; : : . 16

OccuPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANISATION 18

Principal Occupations and Industries. . 18 Wages and Conditions of Service . . 19 Labour Department. : . 22 Pustic FINANCE AND TAXATION. . 25 Revenue and Expenditure . - 29 Assets and Liabilities . : . 34 Public Debt : - 3% Kampala Municipal Council , , . 35 CURRENCY AND BANKING . ; . 36 COMMERCE . : , ; . 38 External and Internal Trade . 38 African Trade Development , . 45 The Produce Marketing Boards . ; . 46 Co-operative Development . ; . 47 PRODUCTION . ; . 48 Land Utilisation and Tenure ; . 48 Agriculture ; ; = 202 Animal Industry re ; : . 60 Tsetse Control . =. | -; ; : . 64 hidkenes: oe CCC Ry Forestry. ; a : . 68 Uganda Development Corporation Limited . 70 Mining . . - © + © + @4 Water Development 4 , : >

Geological Survey Se 2 : . 16

Part Two—continued

Chapter VII SoctaL SERVICES Education . Health Virus Research African Housing Town Planning . Community Development afd Welfare ; The Christian Missions

Chapter VIII LEGISLATION .

Chapter IX Justice, PoLICE AND PRISONS Justice The Police . : , Penal Administration: and Treatment of Offenders Chapter X Pustic UTILITIES . Electricity Supplies Waterworks and Sewerage Fire Services

Chapter XI COMMUNICATIONS Railways and Inland Witciways Air Services Directorate of Civil Action Meteorological Services Posts and Telecommunications Topographical Mapping Chapter XII Press, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND INFORMATION SERVICES The Press . Broadcasting Film Production Information Services East African Literature Bureau Printing Department |

Chapter XIII GENERAL Tourism : National Parks . Game Cultural Activities East African Institute of Social Reseaeeh Sport

127

128 128 129 129 132 134 134

PART THREE

Page Chapter I GEOGRAPHY . , . 136 Chapter II History ; . ; , . 139 Archaeology ; . 143 The Uganda Museum . . 144 Chapter III ADMINISTRATION . : : ; . 145 Executive and Legislative Councils . 146 Local Government. ; . 150 The Civil Service : . . 152

The Public Service Commission and the Police Service Commission . , . 153 Chapter IV WEIGHTS AND MEASURES , . 155 Chapter V_— READING LIST 8 , . 155 APPENDIX A OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS . . 160 APPENDIX B Maps ON SALE ; : . 163

Map ; : ; : ; inside back cover

This report has been drawn up by the Information Department of the Government of Uganda and printed at the Government Press Entebbe

Part One General Review

GOVERNMENT

THE YEAR 1959 was one of preparation for and study and discussion of impending constitutional changes in Uganda. On 4th February the composition of the Constitutional Committee was announced with terms of reference as stated by the Governor in November 1958, when addressing the new Legislative Council. During the ensuing months the fifteen-man committee under the chairmanship of the Hon. J, V. Wild, O.B.E., the Administrative Secretary, toured widely throughout the Protectorate, hearing evidence and receiving memoranda from a large variety of people. Its report, known popularly as the “Wild Report”, was published on Christmas Eve and contained recommendations for the future constitutional arrangements for Uganda. During his visit to Uganda in December, the Secretary of State for the Colonies referred to the Report as being the preparation for a general constitutional framework for the whole of Uganda.

The composition of Legislative Council was not changed during the year, but the Kabaka’s Government continued to boycott the Council and the five Buganda seats remained vacant throughout the year despite further requests by both the Secretary of State and the Governor to the Katikkiro of Buganda to arrange for these seats to be filled. The Katikkiro’s case against the Protectorate Government —-in which he alleged that the composition of Legislative Council had been fundamentally altered, and he was therefore no longer bound by the Agreement to arrange for Buganda representation in Legislative Council—was dismissed by the East African Court of Appeal in May. The Katikkiro subsequently filed an application for leave to appeal to the Privy Council but this had not been heard by the end of the year.

The Kabaka’s Government also boycotted the Constitutional Committee, refused to suggest any names for appointment to the Committee and submitted no memoranda or evidence to it. This did not, however, prevent a considerable number of people in Buganda from giving evidence to the Committee.

The Buganda Lukiko continued their demands for the termination of the Buganda Agreements and submitted further memoranda in this connection to the Secretary of State. In September, the Secretary of State, while making it clear that he regarded the renewed and continued participation of Buganda in Legislative Council as an essential prerequisite for the implementation of any amendments that might be agreed, gave his approval to the renewal of discussions

6 General Review

between the Governor and a Constitutional Committee of the Buganda Lukiko on the subject of amendments to the Buganda Agreements. The Governor had two meetings with this Committee, which also met the Secretary of State during his visit to Uganda in December.

The development of Uganda, and particularly Buganda, suffered a setback during the year from a politically inspired trade boycott aimed mainly at the Asian businessman. The boycott was accompanied by acts of intimidation and violence which became so frequent and so fierce that additional police powers had to be taken by declaring certain parts of Buganda to be disturbed areas, At one time during the year it became necessary to request the assistance of the 4th Battalion, The King’s African Rifles. The organisation sponsoring this boycott and all of its successors were banned during the year.

To prevent an increase in the incidents connected with the boycott the Government felt bound to seek a Judge’s report on 10 of the instigators of this movement, on receipt of which the Governor, under the powers vested in him by the Deportation Ordinance, ordered their removal to parts of the Protectorate remote from Buganda to prevent any further spread of the disorders. This boycott caused such a considerable loss of revenue that it became necessary for cuts to be made in the grants allocated to the Kabaka’s Government.

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother came to Uganda in February and visited all four provinces during her short stay. Everywhere Her Majesty received an enthusiastic reception and her grace and charm delighted everyone.

The Minister of State for the Colonies, Lord Perth, visited Uganda in March shortly after Her Majesty’s visit and attended a meeting of the East African Governors in Entebbe.

The new Secretary of State for the Colonies, the Rt. Hon, Iain Macleod paid a three-day visit to Uganda in December; he carried out a very full and arduous programme and held a variety of meetings and discussions in Kampala, Entebbe and Jinja.

Local Government

In Buganda the newly-elected Lukiko and the Ministers who took office at the beginning of the year, continued to function in the same manner as their predecessors. Mr. Michael Kintu was re-elected Katikkiro and two former Ministers were also returned to office.

Outside Buganda, district councils continued in most cases to perform their functions satisfactorily, but in a few districts their effectiveness was reduced by dissension between opposing factions within them. In two districts it was necessary to amend the con- stitutional regulations to reduce the quorum from two-thirds to a half, to minimise the possibility of the council being prevented from transacting business on any occasion when a minority faction chose to boycott meetings.

General Review 7

As a further step to insulate officials from political influence, the constitutional regulations of a number of councils were amended to provide for the separation of the posts of senior executive officers of councils and chairmen, and for the election of unofficial members as chairmen.

By the end of the year independent appointment boards had been established in all but one of the districts to which the 1955 Ordinance had been applied. These boards appeared to be performing their functions satisfactorily, and to be having the desired effect of restoring the standard of efficiency of chiefs and other district council servants,

At 3lst December there were still five districts to which the District Administration (District Councils) Ordinance, 1955, had not been applied.

In the field of urban local government the new authorities created by bringing into force the Urban Authorities Ordinance on 31st December, 1958, operated satisfactorily. The main changes were the raising to town council status of the Mbale and Masaka authorities. The Urban Authorities Rules were published at the end of the year to come into force on Ist January, 1960. They replaced the old Townships Rules, which in certain respects were out of date.

PUBLIC FINANCE

Government recurrent revenue for 1958/59 was £20:25 million. This was an increase of £1} million over the previous year due mainly to larger receipts from customs and excise duties and income tax. Recurrent expenditure increased by approximately £1 million to £20-28 thus exceeding revenue by £37,000. The deficit in 1957/58 was £438,000.

As a result of economies and other measures it is expected that recurrent expenditure in 1959/60 will remain at about the same level as in the preceding year. However, despite increases in import duties and excise and in fees for Government services estimated to produce an additional £500,000, revenue is expected to fall due to the effects of the trade boycott in Buganda and lower receipts from coffee export tax. A deficit of up to £500,000 on the revenue budget for 1959/60 is

therefore foreseen. Capital Expenditure

Because of the continuing general tendency for recurrent expenditure to increase at a faster rate than revenue, capital expendi- ture was further restricted in 1958/59 to £5:4 million which was almost £1 million less than in the previous year, To meet this expenditure reserves were drawn on to the extent of £2-9 million.

At Ist July, 1959, reserves available to meet budgetary deficits amounted to £146 million—the Capital Development Fund £3-6 million; the African Development Fund £44 million; the General

8 General Review

Revenue Balance £6:1 million and the Protectorate Reserve Fund £500,000.

In presenting the 1959/60 Estimates to Legislative Council, the Minister of Finance stated that Her Majesty’s Government had given an assurance that it would give financial assistance to Uganda if the Protectorate were unable in the years ahead to meet from its own resources the cost of maintaining normal Government services at acceptable levels, and to carry the recurrent costs of reasonable development programmes. Plans were therefore being made, subject Her Majesty’s Government’s approval, for development on this

asis.

GENERAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

The slight trade recession noticed in 1958 was accentuated in 1959 by the trade boycott already referred to on page 6.

Nevertheless, Uganda continued to have a favourable balance of visible trade and although certain sectors sagged, the economy as a whole did as well as in 1958. Private business profits were again lower than in the preceding year due partly to the boycott and partly to the effect of poor coffee prices on estate turnovers, Private building continued to decline. The labour force remained much the same size but due to increases in average salaries and wages the wage bill continued to rise.

The coffee crop and consequent payments to African growers were much higher than expected: payments to growers were estimated at £11-7 million for cotton and £13-5 million for coffee, these sums being subsidised by drawings on the Price Assistance Funds, African dealings in livestock increased considerably and the growth of the African trade sector was accelerated. In the outcome, total private money incomes were slightly higher than in 1958.

Consumer goods prices remained fairly steady during the year and average living standards were therefore maintained.

Commerce

The value of net imports for the period Ist October, 1958 to 30th September, 1959, was £25-9 million, a fall of nearly £2 million or almost seven per cent compared with 1957/58. Direct imports fell by almost nine per cent indicating that Uganda’s merchants continued to make short-term purchases from Kenya importers though to a lesser extent than in the calendar year 1958.

Exports totalled £464 million against £43-8 million in the comparable period of 1957/58, an increase of nearly six per cent. Coffee, raw cotton, copper, animal feeding stuffs and tea were the main exports. Uganda’s best customers were India, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Japan, West Germany and

General Review 9

Belgium while the main suppliers were the United Kingdom, Japan and West Germany.

Internal trade was at a lower level though of a similar pattern co that of 1958. At.the beginning of the year textile stocks were heavy and piecegoods sales in the cotton season January to March were below the level anticipated. This overstocking was aggravated between March and September by the boycott and many merchants were selling surplus stocks at below cost. By the end of September, however, the boycott had eased and the number of orders placed overseas then substantially increased. In the last quarter, many of the larger firms reported a higher level of turnover than in the corresponding period of 1958.

LAW AND ORDER

As a result of the trade boycott a serious security situation developed in Buganda Province early in 1959 and prevailed until the end of the year. There was widespread violence and intimidation and no less than 807 incidents were reported to the police.

Following the declaration of parts of Buganda as “disturbed areas” under the Police Ordinance, public meetings in these areas were restricted to 25 persons. Police resources within Buganda were fully extended throughout the year and it was necessary, when the situation was at its worst, to draft in reserves from neighbouring provinces and enlist the aid of one company of the 4th Battalion, The King’s African Rifles.

A serious riot attributable to inter-tribal friction resulting from the boycott occurred at Luwero in Mengo District of Buganda in which seven persons lost their lives. Riots also occurred on three occasions in Kampala during one of which police opened fire with riot guns and a number of persons were injured. A further serious riot occurred in the prison at Lira in the Northern Province, and police assistance was necessary before it could be quelled.

There were 39,792 Penal Code offences reported, a marked increase over the total for 1958 of 33,084. The most notable of these were offences against authority, against property, and against the person. Much of this increase was attributable to disturbed conditions in Buganda Province and the resulting dissipation of available crime preventive forces from their normal duties to emergency duties in the worst areas of the Province.

Contraventions of the traffic laws showed nearly a 40 per cent increase.

Towards the end of the year, owing to the persistent prevalence of armed robberies, it was necessary to seek financial provision from Legislative Council to establish specially equipped anti-robbery squads to combat this form of serious crime.

10 General Review

LABOUR

There were 58 strikes during the year, which involved 12,379 employees and caused the loss of 102,826 man-days. There were 13 more strikes than in 1958 and nearly ten times as many man-days were lost; the large increase in the latter was largely due to a national railway strike which involved over 5,000 workers and lasted 16 days.

Three more trade unions were registered making a total of 22. Statutory minimum wages were introduced in the main urban centres which led to wage increases among the lower paid workers. There was also a small rise in the wages of unskilled workers in certain rural areas. |

The number of Africans known to be in employment was 224,260. Allowing for those outside the scope of the 1959 enumeration, it is estimated that the total in employment at any time during the year was approximately 310,000.

There was an increase of 103 in the number of registered factories making a total of 1,416. Reported accidents totalled 3,103 of which 91 were fatal.

Three hundred and fourteen youths were receiving apprenticeship training under written agreements. Trade tests were passed by 570 artisans.

LAND TENURE

During the year further progress was made on systematic grants of registered titles in rural areas which was one of the most important recommendations of the East Africa Royal Commission. Where circumstances warrant it, Government’s intention is to grant freehold titles to individuals over the land which they occupy according to native custom.

The grants of title continued to be confined to two pilot schemes in Kigezi and Ankole districts covering approximately 80 square miles in all. These pilot schemes have yielded valuable informa- tion on survey and registration techniques and on costs and have provided a visual demonstration of the process for educative purposes. By the end of the year some 3,200 holdings had been adjudicated in Kigezi and 188 in Ankole.

NATURAL RESOURCES

Agriculture

Cotton produced from the 1958/59 crop amounted to 400,962 bales compared with 350,693 bales in 1957/58. Dry weather from mid-October until early December prevented the achievement of a record crop. In 1959/60 the weather during the main planting season

General Review 11

was exceptionally unfavourable and farmers did well to establish 14 million acres. The primary prices payable were fixed at 47 cents and 48 cents a lb. for 8.47 and B.P.52 growths respectively.

African-grown coffee production rose to the record figure of 94,000 tons for the calendar year. Bugisu Arabica production was 4,912 tons parchment whilst non-African producers sold 6,967 tons of clean coffee. Kampala auction prices fell from early July onwards. The primary price for sun-dried cherry was reduced from 80 cents to 62 cents a |b. in the course of the year.

Sugar production was again the highest on record, the previous year’s record figure being surpassed by 186 tons. Sales of made tea exceeded the 1958 figure by 1,788,000 Ib. With tobacco the main development was in the fire-cured crop which increased to nearly 44 million pounds of cured leaf and steps were taken to establish an export market to absorb leaf surplus to local manufacturing needs.

Exceptionally poor spring rains and prolonged dry weather in the middle of the year reduced the acreages of food crops and lowered yields of all the spring plantings of annual crops. Good rains from early August onwards, persisting well into December, however, secured the position by enabling large acreages of root crops to be planted.

One co-operative and 16 associations of growers were granted licences to operate estate coffee factories and at the end of the year there were 24 licensed factories serving 128,000 acres of mature coffee.

Animal Industry

The production of livestock and their products continued to increase. A record number of 470,000 cattle and 14 million sheep and goats were consumed representing a 20 per cent increase in meat supplies and a greater return for the producers, who also netted some £960,000 for hides and skins exported overseas.

Disease control was satisfactory and no major livestock epizootics occurred.

Fisheries

Fish production in Uganda continued to increase and in 1959 amounted to some 54,200 tons valued at approximately £2,208,000. Increases were due to improved fishing equipment, better fishing craft, and the widespread use of outboard motors which allowed fishermen to extend their range of operations. Much of the increase was also due to the opening up of new fishing grounds which had been made possible by the improvement of road communications to the remoter parts of certain lakes.

During 1959 a biological survey of Lake George was completed by an F.A.O. biologist, and a further biologist began work on fish farm problems.

At the end of the year there were 5,600 African-owned fish ponds throughout the country, an increase of 1,100 over 1958.

12 General Review

Tsetse Control

Throughout 1959 effort continued to be concentrated on resolving the Protectorate’s most serious tsetse problem—the spread of G. morsitans in north-east Ankole. So serious had the situation there become by early 1958 that, to eliminate any further extension of this fly-belt, a change-over to the use of the game elimination method was reluctantly made in July of that year. By the end of 1959 further eastward spread of the fly had been checked but to the north and north-east the position remained uncertain.

Work continued also on the final phase of reclamation from G. morsitans and G. pallidipes, of large areas of Bunyoro, Lango, Acholi and Karamoja districts. Despite this, further increases in G. morsitans prevented any further improvement in either Lango or north Karamoja.

Notable success was achieved in the control with insecticide of G. palpalis in north Lango and West Nile, and G. brevipalpis in Mengo.

CO-OPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

The number of co-operative societies increased by 49 in 1959 to a total of 1,598. Most of these were agricultural marketing societies afhliated to unions processing and marketing coffee and cotton. The primary societies marketed produce to the value of nearly £5 million while the unions handled produce worth £6,618,216.

During the year 13 co-operative cotton ginneries were in operation and plans for the erection of another were completed. Three coffee curing works and two estate coffee factories were in full production and two additional curing works were planned.

MINING AND INDUSTRY Mining .

Copper from Kilembe Mines Limited continued to be Uganda’s third most valuable export. The output of blister copper rose to almost 12,000 tons with an export value in 1959 of £2,717,415 as compared with £2,137,000 in 1958.

The price of wolfram recovered somewhat during the year, reaching Shs. 165 a long-ton unit and at this price operators again essayed economic working.

Major exploration was confined to work in the Kilembe Mines Limited prospecting licence areas, the appraisal of beryl occurrences by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (who introduced a very modern refinement with the use of an isotopic “beryl detector”), and the drilling programme of the Geological Survey over a suspected sulphide zone in Kigezi. |

The expected development of the Sukulu phosphates was further delayed pending reconsideration of the international market situation.

General Review 13

Industry

Subsidiary and associated companies of the Uganda Development Corporation continued to play a notable part in the development of secondary industry although marketing problems again presented some problems. These were particularly noticeable in the case of the Uganda Cement Industry at Tororo whose sales fell to 80,000 tons. The difficulties encountered by the Uganda Metal Products and Enamelling Company were not completely resolved despite the introduction of increased customs duties, which could not become effective until the large stocks of imported enamelware held by dealers were dissipated. Production was maintained at the Universal Asbestos Manufacturing Company’s factory at Tororo, and was increased at Kilembe Mines Ltd. Three-shift work was maintained at Nyanza Textile Industries plant at Jinja and production rose to the rate of 13 million yards a year. A large expansion programme was in hand at the end of the year.

Small new private enterprise industrial concerns which started up in 1959 included a nail and barbed-wire factory and a clothing factory for the manufacture of vests and T-shirts. The boycott in Buganda had its effect on some established industries, notably brewing and soft drinks, and was also held responsible for the decision taken by the gramophone record and dry-battery factories to close down.

The plywood factory at Jinja went into production early in the year as planned, and made steady progress in marketing its products. The company seeks to become the main supplier of plywood and tea chests in East Africa, and is also hopeful of gaining an export market, particularly for tea chests and high quality veneers.

The sugar factories again broke previous production records with a total output of 81,075 tons.

SOCIAL SERVICES

Education

The year saw a continued increase in the number of children of all races attending all types of schools.

At the end of 1959 there were approximately 335,000 African children attending grant-aided primary schools as compared with 180,000 in 1952 at the beginning of the eight-year expansion pro- gramme. In African secondary schools there were 20,027 pupils as compared with 17,306 in 1958. In Asian schools the total enrolment was 20,180 of whom 2,133 were at senior secondary schools, an increase of 15 per cent over 1958.

In 1959 a total of 1,029 African boys and girls sat for the Senior Cambridge School Certificate and 584 passed. Sixty-two others passed the General Certificate Examination. At the end of the year

14 General Review

there were 304 Uganda students at Makerere College of whom 37 were women; 80 students were at the Royal Technical College, Nairobi, and 473 students were taking courses of study overseas. Of these latter 269 were studying in the United Kingdom with the aid of scholarships from the Protectorate Government or local govern- ment bodies.

To meet the continuing cost of education just over £5 million was provided in the 1959/60 estimates, representing 19-2 per cent of the Protectorate Budget.

Health

There was no serious outbreak of any of the recognised infectious diseases during the year but a widespread epidemic occurred of an apparently new disease with unpleasant symptoms closely comparable with those of dengue. About 500,000 people were affected but there were no deaths and those affected were generally incapacitated for five to seven days, The East African Virus Research Institute suc- ceeded in isolating the virus which was a new one, found to be transmitted by two species of Anopheles mosquito.

Malnutrition, more especially protein deficiency in the lower age groups, was again responsible for much ill health. The cause was in most cases not due to a shortage of the necessary foodstuffs but to ignorance of the correct use of those available.

The World Health Organisation anti-malaria project in Kigezi progressed well under the enthusiastic leadership of Dr. de Zulueta. At the end of the year, amongst the population of 40,000 in the areas sprayed in May, no infant under six months old had been found with parasites in the blood.

Early in the year the first African woman to qualify as a doctor at Makerere had her degree conferred by the Queen Mother.

COMMUNICATIONS

Further progress was made during the year on the road reconstruction and improvement programme. In July a grant of £1,751,000 from the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund enabled a start to be made on bituminising a number of Class I gravel roads including the Masaka—Mbarara road, six miles of which had been completed by the end of the year. Twenty-seven miles of the Mbale—Soroti road were also bituminised between Nakaloke and Kumi and the Lira-— Kitgum road was reconstructed up to Class I and II gravel standards.

Rail traffic forwarded from stations in Uganda rose from 554,000 tons in 1958 to 675,000 tons in 1959 partly due to increased traffic on the western Uganda extension which totalled 146,000 tons as compared with 128,000 tons in 1958. Goods traffic on Lakes Albert and Victoria increased, but fell by 8,000 tons on Lake Kyoga.

General Review 15

Passenger and goods traffic on the road services operated by East African Railways and Harbours declined slightly.

Construction work on the new main line cut-off between Jinja and Bukonte began in July.

The total number of passengers handled at Entebbe Airport, including transit passengers, decreased from 82,000 in 1958 to 80,800, but the numbers embarking and disembarking at Entebbe increased. A new airfield was brought into service at Gulu and work began on extending the field at Arua. |

Five new post offices were opened and additional telephone trunk circuits were introduced between Mbale and Soroti, Soroti and Lira, Mbale and Jinja, and Mbale and Kampala. There were 13,593 telephones in service at the end of the year, a 7:8 per cent increase over 1958.

PUBLIC UTILITIES Electricity Supplies

Sales of electricity increased by 24-6 per cent to a total of 3148 million units. Of these 129-4 million were exported to Kenya under a bulk supply agreement.

The eighth generator was installed at the Owen Falls Hydro- Electric Scheme bringing the capacity up to 120,000 kW and nearly 500 miles of transmission lines were erected.

The heavy burden of interest rates on loans obliged the Board to increase its tariffs by 13-4 per cent in April.

Water Supplies

Improvements to water supplies were completed during the year at Mbale, Soroti and Kamuli. Other projects were nearing completion at Mubende and Ongino and work was in hand on schemes at Fort Portal, Masaka, Palissa and Bushenyi.

Part Two Chapter I: Population

A NEW population census of all races was taken in Uganda in 1959. It was taken in two parts, the count of non-Africans being held on 18th to 19th March and that of Africans starting on 19th August. The population enumerated at these censuses totalled 6,538,175. Of | this number 6,451,117 were Africans, 63,130 Indians, 5,973 Pakistanis, 2,830 Goans, 1,946 Arabs and 10,866 Europeans. There were 2,313 people of other races.

The last census was held in 1948 when the total population was shown to be 4,958,520. The average annual rate of increase between 1948 and 1959 had, therefore, been of the order of 2:5 per cent. The increase over the period for Uganda as a whole was 31 per cent, the increase in the districts ranging from nearly 13 per cent in Teso to over 40 per cent in Mengo.

Full details of the African census were not available at the end of the year but district populations were shown to be as follows:

Population Population Net Percentage Province and District 1948 1959 increase increase BUGANDA PROVINCE— West Mengo das Bae 489,802 688,185 198,383 40°5 East Mengo ... gig adie 409,794 606,694 196,900 48 -0 Mubende ... sere baie 84,878 99,069 14,191 16°7 Masaka on ale ie 317, 688 440, 180 122,492 38 -6 TOTAL BUGANDA PROVINCE ... 1,302,162 1,834,128 531,966 40°9 EASTERN PROVINCE— Busoga see nue ees 505,998 660,507 154,509 30°5 Bukedi Sa Fast wee 333,387 397,650 64,263 19 +3 Bugisu es ue wale 262,854 352,885 90,031 34 +3 Mbale Town ees sae 3,709 8,433 4,724 127 -4 Teso eee Sa an 402,564 453, 474 50,910 12 °6 ‘TOTAL EASTERN PROVINCE ... 1,508,512 1,872,949 364,437 24°2 NORTHERN PROVINCE— Karamoja__... sare axe 125,567 171,945 46,378 36 °9 Lango oe ua aos 265,890 352,943 87,053 32 °7 Acholi re ae Pe 215,655 285,530 69,875 32-4 Madi see oo: ‘as 37,756 50,627 12,871 34°1 West Nile... ae bes 298, 307 383, 926 85,619 28 °7 TOTAL NORTHERN PROVINCE... 943,175 1,244,971 301,796 32:0 WESTERN PROVINCE— Bunyoro ase oe Suid 108, 380 126, 875 18,495 17°1 Toro Ae ade a 258,873 347,479 88,606 34-2 Kigezi wale aie cua 395,529 493,444 97,915 24 °8 Ankole eee wee wists 400,924 529,712 128,788 32°1 TTOTAL WESTERN PROVINCE ... 1,163,706 1,497,510 333,804 28 °7 TOTAL UGANDA PROTECTORATE .-- 4,917,555 6,449,558" 1,532, 003 31°2

* Excludes 1,415 persons in transit and 144 Africans married to non-Africans.

Population 17

The following table gives the breakdown between the sexes and a preliminary indication of the proportion of children:

Males Females Province Fe | Fs Total Under 16 16 years Under 16 16 years years and over years and over Buganda ... gas 354,025 637,920 345,947 496,236 1,834,128 Eastern... wie 381,740 551,027 368,583 571,599 1,872,949 Western ... ae 369,285 341,964 371,579 414,682 1,497,510 Northern ... ae 308,166 292,775 306,688 337,342 1,244,971

UGANDA oe. | 1,413,216 1,823,686 1,392,797 1,819,859 6,449,558*

As will be seen among Africans there were about equal numbers of men and women although, in Buganda, due to the presence of migrant workers from neighbouring territories, there were rather more men. The age grouping of the African population shows that nearly 45 per cent were aged 15 or under. A better age distribution will become available from the analysis of the sample census. In this sample census which followed the African general census some five per cent of the African population was re-enumerated’ and more detailed information was obtained.

The density of population a square mile (land area) was 85, ranging from 5,840 in Kampala Municipality to four in Napore, a sub-county in Karamoja. Excluding the small district of Mbale Township, the district densities ranged from 14 in Karamoja to 260 in Kigezi.

The populations of the three main towns were as follows:

Asian and Towns African | European other Total Kampala evs oes 24,035 3,179 19,500 46,714 Jinja ace aes 19,828 828 9,085 29,741 Mbale ae exe 8,433 397 4,739 13,569

In the census 399 instructors and 15,876 enumerators were employed. About 40 per cent of the enumerators were schoolboys. In most of Buganda and in Mbale Township District the census was completed in one day. Elsewhere it was in most cases finished in three days. The average cost per person counted was just over 10 cents.

Chapter IT:

Occupations, Wages and Labour Organisation

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS AND INDUSTRIES

Ucanpa is primarily an agricultural country in which the vast majority of African families meet their ‘needs’ and fulfil their few financial obligations by the cultivation of economic crops especially cotton, coffee and tobacco. The minority who find it necessary to seek paid employment usually make the journey to the lakeside areas of Buganda or the neighbouring Busoga District of the Eastern Province. Most of the country’s industrial undertakings are situated in these areas as well as a large proportion of the non-African tea, coffee, and sugar plantations. The largest plantations are two sugar estates where some 19,350 Africans, 727 Asians and 15 Europeans are employed, Cotton piecegoods are manufactured from Uganda cotton at a mill in Jinja. Copper ore from Kilembe Mines is smelted in Jinja.

Away from the lakeside areas, in the Bunyoro District of the Western Province, there is a sisal estate, some sawmills, and a number of coffee plantations. A copper and cobalt mine is in production and there are also tea plantations, as well as fishing and salt industries. In south-west Uganda there are wolfram, beryl and tin mines, and near Tororo in the Eastern Province there is a cement factory. Also in the same area there is a factory which is manufacturing asbestos sheets and prefabricated asbestos housing and a company to exploit the apatite and pyrochlore deposits of the Sukulu mineral complex, The cotton ginning industry, which is seasonal, employs a labour force of about 17,000 Africans and 650 Asians at the peak period during the early months of each year. Finally there are many thousands of African farmers in Buganda, mostly smallholders, who employ a few labourers each.

Numbers Employed

The results of the enumeration of African employees which took place on 30th June, 1959, showed that there were 224,260 Africans and 15,200 non-Africans in employment. The number of Africans in employment in Buganda fell by approximately 7,000 partially due to the trade boycott, but to some extent because of the recession in trade. The numbers employed in the other three Provinces rose by approxi- mately 3,000. It is estimated that some 84,000 Africans were in employment at the time who were outside the scope of the enumera- tion.

Supply of Labour 19

Extent of Unemployment or Under Employment : Labour Shortages

Out of the total population there are only about 330,000 in wage- earning employment at any one time but large numbers of migrant workers come into Uganda from Ruanda-Urundi, Kenya, north-west Tanganyika and to a lesser extent from the adjoining areas of the Belgian Congo and the Sudan.

Throughout 1959, the supply of labour was generally adequate throughout the country. Apart from a few places where the nature of the work was unpopular or conditions were poor, no shortages what- soever were reported. On the other hand, there was a surplus of labour in the main towns especially Kampala and Jinja. The position in Kampala was aggravated by the trade boycott which threw many people out of employment. The majority who failed to find other work returned to their homes on the land.

Migrant Labour

There are two main streams of migrant labourers. From the north-west come migrants from the West Nile District and the adjoining areas of the Belgian Congo and the Sudan, and from the south-west from Kigezi and Ankole districts and the Belgian Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi. From the south-west also come a number of migrants from Tanganyika, while across the eastern border there is a considerable migration from the Nyanza Province of Kenya.

During 1959, according to returns from check points on some of the routes, approximately 63,250 migrants entered Uganda by the south-west route compared with 84,000 counted at the same check points in 1958. The increase in the number of immigrants which was observed during the last few months of 1958 continued during the first few months of 1959, but by the middle of the year the flow had returned to normal. The number who came to Central Uganda by the north-west route was 27,800 compared with 27,734 in 1958. About 8,385 of these came from outside Uganda. The majority of men from the north-west either grow cash crops on a leased plot of land or work for African farmers. Many of them stay for a period of not more than two years and then return to their homes. Very few come accompanied by their families.

Transit camps provided by Government along the north-west and south-west routes provided facilities for 148,483 travellers during the year.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE

During 1959 two statutory wages orders were published. The first was a Minimum Wages Order fixing minimum wages to be paid to employees in the urban areas of Kampala, Entebbe, Jinja, Mbale, Tororo and Masaka. These ranged from Shs. 75/40 a month down to Shs. 57 a month. The second was the Road Passenger Transport

20 Wages and Conditions of Service

Industry Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment Order made on the recommendation of the Wages Council set up for this industry, The order was to take effect from Ist January, 1960, and covered all classes of employees in the industry.

The rates of pay for trade tested artisans in Government remained unchanged at Shs. 8 a day for a Grade III man, Shs. 9/50 for Grade II and Shs, 11 rising to Shs. 21 a day for a Grade I man. Highly skilled artisans, who are mostly Europeans, can earn from Shs. 40 to Shs. 80 a day, while men of less skill and training, mostly Asians and some Africans, can earn from Shs. 15 to Shs, 30 a day. , Most Africans are employed on an unwritten monthly contract and a contract, also unwritten, for the completion of 30 working days within a period of 42 days is fairly common, particularly in agricul- tural employment. Artisans are generally paid at daily rates. The wages of most African labourers are paid monthly, More interest has been shown in the adoption of a weekly contract but so far only a very few employers have introduced this. The payment of bonuses for regular attendance and output in excess of the normal daily task by some of the more progressive employers provides an opportunity for earning more money and helps to raise the African labourer’s conception of a fair day’s work.

About 15 per cent of the total number of adult unskilled labourers are recruited on written contract. These contracts are usually for six months and include free transport to and from the place of employ- ment, free housing, free medical attention and free rations. Some employers who can provide suitable housing encourage men to bring their families with them in the hope that it will be possible to build up a more stable labour force. A few of the larger agricultural employers, by arrangement with the Belgian Authorities, continue to recruit labour in Ruanda-Urundi for work in Uganda. Contracts are for three years and it is a condition of the recruiting permit that 90 per cent of the labourers recruited must be accompanied by their families.

Employers are obliged to provide free housing for employees whose wages are less than Shs. 100 a month unless the employee is able to return to his home or make other satisfactory arrangements. This obligation to provide housing docs not apply in the Kampala Municipality and the surrounding planning area or within the town- ships of Entebbe and Jinja. In these places a limited amount of accommodation is now available in general housing estates provided by Government, and serviced plots have been made available on which houses can be put up by the occupiers according to the standards permitted for the area. Outside the urban areas, labourers usually receive part rations free, although, with the exception of recruited labour, this is not a statutory obligation. A considerable number of Africans employed on estates are now housed in satisfactory permanent

Wages and Conditions of Service 21

houses provided rent-free by employers, and the replacement of poor houses in temporary materials by permanent accommodation of an approved standard is going on at many places. Asian employees are usually accommodated free by their employers or given an allowance in lieu, whilst it is common for European employees to be given quarters for which they pay a sub-economic rent.

Hours of Work

Nearly