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LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA

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MEDIAEVAL MUSICAL RELICS OF DENMARK

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MEDIAEVAL MUSICAL RELICS OF DENMARK

BY

ANGUL HAMMERICH

TRANSLATED FROM DANISH BY MARGARET WILLIAMS HAMERIK

WITH SUBVENTION OF THE CARLSBERG FUND

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COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY ANGUL HAMMERICH, COPENHAGEN

PRINTED IN 200 NUMBERED COPIES .

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PRINT SD: MELSENG LYDICHE TAKE}. SIMMELKIAER). COPENHAGEN

PLATES IN COLLOTYPE BY F. HENDRIKSEN. COPENHAGEN

CONTENTS

FACSIMILES “TEXTS: AND NOTES s:0 343.40 ioaddadawrer i eesedeees PREPAGE: os dcdiint heireasie tion ease Aha eee aw aes aware

CONCERNING : SEQUENCES 3 e035 cenwacetaciw tne tee canoe es Origin and history of sequences Tropi, Farciture, Laudes, Prosa, Sequentia Cantus alleluiaticus 10th century, St. Gall, Notker Balbulus Develop- ment of syllabic songs into freer forms Emancipation from the Cantus allelu- iaticus Significance for melodic development and musical form Popular form in contradistinction to that of Gregorian chant Antiphonal choirs Older and newer textual forms Strophic structure, half-strophes and whole strophes Rhyme and rhythm, Trochees Structure of melodies Melodic section, period, repetition —- Modes, “Dorian” and “Mixolydian” Hymns Difference between hymns and sequences.

NOTATION che dettecs arene se enous seas achat hl eraaee aad

Latin choral notes Gothic choral notes (“Hufeisenschrift”) Single and grouped

notes Rhythmic question Rhythm and metrical texts Guido d’Arezzo

_Mora vocis and pauses Double notes, “Bivirga” and “Pressus” Neume liquescentes, Plica Different clefs —- Custos.

LIBER DATICUS: LUNDENSIS sac sn 8iuvcan cs haeadeee tare in hes

Contents of Ms. -- Earlier editions The 2 music folios with sequences Origin and significance Danish or foreign? Relations of France and Denmark University of Paris, Adam de Saint-Victor Eskil, Absalon, Andreas Suneson.

SEQUENCE I Ab arce siderea Textual contents and metre French character of music Comparison with French sequences Modes and Ambitus Facsimiles Text Melody Analysis of melody .....

SEQUENCE II Lux iocunda, lux insignis Adam de Saint-Victor Text and metre Melodies the same as for “Lauda Sion salvatorem” and 8 other sequences Mode, “authentic” and “plagal” forms Classic character Irregularities —- Characteristic combinations of intervals Text Melody Later inscription upon Ms..................00008

SEQUENCE Ill Alleluia nunc decantet De apostolis troparium St. Gall school Oldest sequences, Prosa Metrical tendencies and assonance _ Archaic character of the music Syllabic song, melismas Irregular structure Dissimilar sectional parts Mode Signature Text Melody Later example of this sequence in Reichenau Codex

9—14

15—40

18—29

30—35

IV

LIBER SCOLZ® VIRGINIS .i2442:deecereoestchineaticswaeenn Sequence collection from different periods of the Middle Ages Office of the Blessed Virgin Contents of Codex.

SEQUENCE IV Missus Gabriel de celis | The Annunciation Wide dis- semination Recent Danish editions Question of authorship An- dreas Sunes6n or Adam de Saint-Victor? Chronica Sialandia French investigations of L. Gautier and E. Misset Text Music of the differ- ent Mss. (Codex Brocman 196, Stockholm, Codex germanicus 716, Mu- nich, Codex Liber scole virginis, Lund) Mode and Ambitus Design of music Lyrical moments Analysis of melodies Facsimiles Text Melody......... P ara bratavs-s toie se Pune Sous oe Deus coe ee ade eek

SEQUENCE V Letabundus exultet fidelis chorus Alleluia Originally a Christmas sequence, though frequently otherwise employed Ascribed to St. Bernard(?) Popularity in Middle Ages Numerous imitations Text Melody Melody in other Mss. Parody as Anglo-Norman GrimKine SONG 5-5 fGhan Sadhana Ae eteo se we auld tandems

SEQUENCE VI Gaude Maria, templum summe trinitatis (10th century) One of the oldest sequences - Text Melody ...................5.

SEQUENCE VII Iubilemus in hac die (14th century) Plastic melodies,

without much development Ms. maculate Signature Text INNCIOGY SS ackshs git gee ne hen oe ae aie donate, A aed ah eae a et ae SEQUENCE VIII A rea virga prime matris Eue (11th century) Prose with assonance -— Syllabic song, archaic traits Ms. maculate Text

MeloGy == :Facsimiles f3 tak 2c Ot ehaiten ou id aiiGe eagle ee oes yatees

CODEX GERMANICUS 716 MUNICH. ...................... Paper Ms. (15th century) Large collection of sequences of different periods Gothic choral notation.

SEQUENCE IX Missus Gabriel de celis II Considerable divergences from

melody as given in the Lund Codex Later origin Melodic move- ment disjunct, (“anfractus”), many melismas Frequent change of clefs Also the melody to the 2nd strophe found here Facsimiles Melody

CODEX.. KILONIENSIS ich.se0c ders saws raotiad antec ree eax Copy of the Ordinale S. Kanuti Ducis et Martyris, (1170) Previous recent editions all without notes Complete ritual, with notes, of the Office of St. Canute La- vard The two Feasts of St. Canute Lavard -— Historic significance of music in the Codex.

HYMNUS X (I and II) Sequences and hymns distinct from each other Popular character of hymn First hymn remarkable as it has 2 mel- odies Relations of these melodies Scandinavian character and un- usual key of first melody, pure C major Major keys otherwise not found in medizeval church music Melody therefore unique Second hymn in Ist ecclesiastical mode, “Dorian” Facsimiles Texts Melodies Melodies in time division .......... 0... eee eee eee nee

Pages 41—71 42—55 o0—oO9

62 63—66 6/7—69 71—78

79—102 81—88

SEQUENCE XI Preciosa mors sanctorum Sequence for the Feast of the Passion of St. Canute Lavard, Jan. 7th Text found only in Danish sources Well-constructed melodies, 3rd strophe excepted Mode “Mixolydian”, high register Characteristic use of triad intervals Sub-tonic endings --- Tritone Facsimile Text Melody........ 89—95

SEQUENCE XII Diem festem ueneremur martyris Sequence for Canute Lavard’s Feast of Translation, June 25th Otherwise found only in the Missale Sleswicense Text of regular strophic structure “Dorian” mode (1st and 2nd ecclesiastical modes) Breaks in melodic lines, many me- lismas Melody gradually works up from stationary beginning Char- acter resembling Danish folk-song Composed in Denmark? Used until the last days of Catholicism in Denmark Text Facsimile | (0) 3b eee oa ee ere rane a eee ey ar ee een er eee 96—102

SONG TO THE BLESSED VIRGIN, 15TH CENTURY........... 103—107 Paper Ms., Arne Magn. Collection, Univ. Libr. Copenhagen Varied contents, partly devotional, partly secular The monk Peder Reff Lille Musical items, including a sequence to the Blessed Virgin Text partly Latin, partly Danish Melody of regular structure Danish folk-song character “Dorian” mode.

CARMEN VERNALE. 16TH CENTURY .............. 2.00 ee eee 108—114 “Piz cantiones”, Finnish-Swedish song-book, with notes, 1582, Theodoricus Petri T. Norlind’s Treatises Text and melody of Morten Bérup’s Spring-song Facsimile Melody probably of Danish origin, from the beginning of 16th century Characteristic tonal relations Melody undergoes an “improvement” in a later edition (Abo 1776), with reconstruction of mode and rhythm Dan- ish translations of text and modern melodies.

BOOKS OF UREFERENGE oc. gse 2s eneeareecatesss cosets 115—116

SUPPLEMENT ‘trast daeiecelars eet est oreo eas 119—124 Sequence I “Ab arce siderea”, XII. century, “Carmen vernale”, XVI. century, in 4-part transcriptions for chorus in antique style, by Julius Réntgen.

MEDIAEVAL MUSICAL RELICS OF DENMARK FACSIMILES, TEXTS AND NOTES

Facsimiles Texts and notes _ Pi. Pages Pages I Ab arce siderea...... ccc ec cc ee ees I—Il 19—20 26—28 Il Lux iocunda, lux insignis ...............0 00 ee I1—IIl 20— 21 32—34 III Alleluia nunc decantet................. 0.0000 IV 22 37—39 IV Missus Gabriel de celis]................ 0.000. V—VIl 48—50 53—55 WV @tabunGus: 25.5.80%-% wore bbe ohare Sad oes aa ead ViI—-IX 90—52 56—58 VI Gaude Maria templum summe trinitatis......... 20.0.0... eee eee eee eee 62 VIP 1UDemius: 1 NaC Ci@ so cb os. dee ee SRE S Ce oS LO OE ON Se 64—66 VIII A rea virga prime matris Eue.................. X 69 67—68 IX Missus Gabriel de celis I] ...................0.. XI—XIV 73—76 77—78 X Two Canute Lavard Hymns.................... XV—XVI 85— 86 84. 87

_ XI Preciosa mors sanctorum (Canute Lavard sequence) XVII—XIX 91—92.100 93—95 XII Diem festum ueneremur martyris (Canute Lavard

SEQUENCE) sii ccedcens dae tana eeeees XIX 100 98 101 XIII Song to the Blessed Virgin, 15th century......... XX 105 104. 107 XIV Carmen vernale, 16th century .................4. XX] 111 109. 110

PREFACE

HE present work originated in studies preparatory to a series of lectures on

Danish Musical History of the Middle Ages, held by the author at the Uni- versity of Copenhagen in the autumn of 1909. Original examples of Danish music from that period were essential for this purpose, but it developed that almost noth- ing of this order had been published, or was available in literature. What was re- quisite had first to be procured. This circumstance led to researches into sources in native and foreign libraries and archives, thereby unearthing an unsuspected amount of Danish music from those ancient times. In Mss. from the cathedral of Lund and the Ringsted convent church, examples were found from the days of the Valdemars, of Absalon and Andreas Suneson. This work is the result of these investigations.

The collection is by no means exhaustive; it is to be earnestly hoped that others may considerably increase the present material through new research. Those already collected, however, seem to be of sufficient interest to warrant publication. Both on account of their value as musical and historical documents, and of the witness they bear to the relatively high musical culture of Denmark in the Middle Ages, (at least in the church), the author considers it his duty to com- municate the results of his researches in this form. That this has been possible is due, in the first instance, to the ready support and great generosity of the Carls- berg Fund.

The promotion of the work has also been greatly aided by the advice and assist- ance of the following gentlemen, for which most grateful acknowledgement is made: Professor Dr. M. Cl. Gertz, who revised and translated the Latin texts into Danish, Mr. J. Aarsbo, Dr. Phil. R. Besthorn, Dr. Phil. A. A. Bjornbo, Mr. Julius Foss, Dr. Phil. E. Gigas, Dom H. B. de Malherbe of Solesmes, Professor Dr. E. R. Neovius,

VIII

Dr. Phil. T. Norlind, and Professor Dr. Kr. Nyrop. Professor Julius Rontgen has done this work the esteemed service to treat the first and the last of these musical relics in polyphonic counterpoint, (in the Supplement). Thanks are furthermore due to the Royal and the University Libraries of Copenhagen, to the Libraries of Lund, Stockholm, Munich, Karlsruhe and Kiel, for their courtesy in placing the requisite Codices at my disposal.

As regards the English edition, I wish to thank especially my sister-in-law, Mrs. Asger Hamerik, for translating the Danish text into English, and finally the Rev. F. Flynn of Elsinore and His Excellence the American Minister to Denmark, Dr. M. F. Egan, for valuable suggestions and assistance in reading the proofs.

Copenhagen, August 9th, 1912

ANGUL HAMMERICH

ae en ee ee | SEE eer

CONCERNING SEQUENCES

i bee sequence arose as an offspring of Gregorian chant, and derives its peculiar name from this origin. Gregorian chant may sometimes be simple and un- combined syllabic song, sometimes of a more complex nature with fuller tonal succession. In some instances, especially when the emotions are excited, these tonal series may become more agitated, and develop in content and extent into lengthy melismas which twine in rich luxuriance about the fundamental melodic basis. Such melismas gave origin to the sequence.

The musical utility of these melismas was appreciated even in quite early times. They often contained valuable melodic material, which afforded, to those who understood how to use it, the foundation for new melodies. To these latter melo- dies new texts could be written, and in this way both tones and words of new songs evolved. Thus there arose, in the course of time, different extensions or par- aphrases of the many parts of the Mass. These were called by various names, according to the division of the Mass to which they belonged, viz: “Tropi” to the Introitus, “Farse” or “Farciture’” (fillings) to the Kyrie, “Laudes” to the Gloria, etc. Gradually the term Tropi came to be the general title of all these paraphrases.

A Sequence, or as it was called in earlier times, a Prosa, belongs to the Tropi, and is the most remarkable of them all. The sequence is the outcome of tonal me- lismas in that part of the Mass in which the musical element culminates, the Gra- duale, sung between the reading of the Epistle and the Gospel, while the celebrant goes from one side of the altar to the other*). The Graduale is always distinguished by its pompous close, the great “Alleluia” with its “Iubilationes”, “Cantus alleluia- ticus”, where the occurrence of the aforesaid tone-melismas becomes a principle, developing in great richness. Here we reach the real musical climax of the Mass, words cease, tones speak, winding in and out with the rise and fall of the “Iubila- tiones” like undulating tone-clouds of incense, expression of ecstasy, transport of devotion**).

In these jubilant melismas there lies hidden a wealth of melody, rich in content and extent. Every church-day outside of Lent, whether Sunday or week day, had its own “Alleluia”. Here was what might be called an almost inexhaustible supply of melodies, flowing from the very fountain-head of Gregorian chant. Sequences orig- inated from this source. The name “Sequentia” was at first applied to the melismas

*) Graduale: “quia in gradibus [are] canitur’.

*#) “Iubilus sonus quidam est significans cor parturire quod verbis dicere non potest, et quem decet ista

iubilatio, nisi ineffabilem Deum”? Augustinus Psalm. XXXII, 2. “Iubilus dicitur, quando ineffabile gaudium mente concipitur, quod nec mente abscondi possit nec

sermonibus aperiri”. Gregorius Moral. |. 24 in Tob. 383. 1

2 ORIGIN OF SEQUENCES. ST. GALL

themselves*), but came by degrees to designate the new songs evolved from them. The name “Prosa” which these songs previously bore, and by which they still are sometimes called, may be naturally traced to the circumstance that the texts were originally expressed in prose, metrical form being a subsequent addition. A recent author, however, claims that the derivation of this title is an abbreviation of the word “Sequentia” **).

The sequence originated in the early part of the Middle Ages. The renowned Benedictine monastery of St. Gall, in Switzerland, is generally indicated as its birth- place, and Notker Balbulus (died 912) is known as the father of the sequence. However the origin of this liturgic music-poem is hardly satisfactorily settled. Accord- ing to the traditions of St. Gall itself, it is said that songs of this order were intro- duced there by a monk from the monastery of Jumiéges in Normandy, who took refuge in the Swiss cloister upon his flight from the Normans in 851. Quite recently it has been claimed that the sequence did not originate in St. Gall, but that it is of Byzantine descent, both as to text and music***). Others refer its origin to France even as far back as the 8'" century+). However this may be, it is certain that the sequences of the 10 century and later were especially connected with St. Gall’s cloister, which occupied a prominent position at this era in all pertaining to the art and science of music. A number of men were fostered there, who achieved immor- tality in this special branch: Notker Balbulus (“the stammerer”), the fertile sequence- poet, whose celebrated “Media vita in morte sumus” is still preserved in the German chorale “Mitten wir im Leben sind”, Ratpert, Tuotilo, Notker Labeo, Ekkehard I, Ekkehard II and Wipo, to whom we owe the renowned Easter sequence “Victimz paschali laudes”, also Berno and Hermannus Contractus, of the neighboring monas- tery of Reichenau tf).

The basis of the melody of the original sequences was the extended textless me- lismas, the Iubilationes of the great Alleluia in the Graduale. The principle of for- mation of the melody was “syllabic”, i.e. one syllable of text to each note of the song.

Gradually in the course of time and development, sequence melodies departed both from the source and from the principle. The freer use of the given material grew apace, the Cantus alleluiaticus no longer alone furnishing all the tonal mate- rial. The eldest of the sequence-poets, Notker Balbulus, already began this practice. If we examine his numerous sequence melodies (see Schubiger, op. cit.), and com- pare them with the original Cantus alleluiaticus, this will be amply proved. He does not “copy”, he “composes”. While using the given material as the starting point of his composition, he treats it freely, retaining only the key or mode of the model,

*) Ordo romanus: “Sequitur iubilatio, quam Sequentiam vocant”. **) pro sa = pro sequentia (P. S. Baumer: Gesch. des Brevicrs, page 293). ***) Peter Wagner in Revue d'histoire musicale, II, 294 ff. Pierre Aubry gainsays this claim, ibid II, 518. +) C. Blume and H. Bannister in “Analecta hymnica”, Vol. LIII (Introduction), Leipzig 1911. tt) Anselm Schubiger: Die Sangerschule St. Gallens, 1858. Here the oldest sequences may be found in modern notation.

ORIGINAL AND LATER FORMS 3

and perhaps a few notes of the beginning of the song. Subsequently this eman- cipation from the Cantus alleluiaticus became complete, and we then find sequence melodies that are perfectly independent of, or without visible connection with the Cantus in question. Industrious and musically endowed friars devoted themselves to composing in this manner. Gradually, as manifold melodies came into existence, and these again multiplied themselves, the result in time was almost countless num- bers. Thanks to the regularity of the structure of these melodies, required and con- trolled by the texts, first one and then another of the “Sections” of the melodies could be used in new connections, or with new texts. By gemmation there were thus constantly created new melodies of the old, making it possible to collect quite a store of these disjointed sections or links of melodies, which could then be put together again in endless combinations. So extensive was this fund, that the melo- dies produced by the process of combining the different melodic sections really appeared, in the larger number of cases, to be new. As time passed and sequences waxed in numbers, the demand for new melodies grew. Owing to the above de- scribed method of combination, the supply was easily equal thereto. Pierre Aubry calculates that the melodies to the sequences of one single poet, Adam de Saint- Victor, consist of not less than 183 melodic sections, the different combinations of which form the complete series of sequences of the French composer given by Aubry*).

The syllabic principle of the song was adhered to more rigidly. It was partic- ularly this principle that gave the melodies their plain, comprehensible, natural character, which, in contrast to the more complicated Gregorian chant, secured the sequences their great and steadily increasing popularity. Nevertheless some liberties gradually crept into these also, though within narrower bounds. The main body of the melody may here and there be varied with a few by-notes, but these are, in the majority of cases, used so discreetly as to avoid veiling the architectural lines of the structure. The necessity of moderation, of clearness, and of a regulated tonal suc- cession presented itself here, both out of popular and metrical considerations. The sequence melody remained therefore essentially syllabic, and in close sympathy with the text. The wild and boisterous melismas of the Cantus alleluiaticus were bridled and reined, having to submit to the pace of metrical laws.

Out of the sequence there arose melodic formations which exercised great influ- ence upon the development of musical form, tonal architecture. In sequence melodies the tones were arranged in groups, united by the common key. From this arose “melodic sections”, several of which linked together made up clauses, antecedent and consequent clauses, these in turn combining to form periods. (In sequence melodies, the period generally falls upon the melody to the half- strophe, not the whole strophe, of the text.) In these parallel groups mutually ad- justed to each other, we find medieval .examples of tonal forms in which one is

*) E. Misset et Pierre Aubry: Les proses d’Adam de Saint-Victor. (Paris 1900). See pages 120—159 for

complete list. He calls these melodic sections “timbres”. 1*

4 ARTISTIC AND POPULAR SIGNIFICANCE. POETRY

amazed to encounter real melodies, artistically arranged and artistically constructed. For melodic development on the whole, and especially for the Romanic “Lais” and the Germanic “Leiche”, sequence melodies were of deepest import.

In still another way these melodies were of great significance. Being compre- hensible, they carried the art of music to the masses. At this period it was not easy for ordinary people to satisfy their musical impulses, if these should be of a more artistic nature. One had only the church to look to, since everything musical that had to do with art was connected with that institution. In the church, however, Gregorian chant reigned supreme, and it was difficult for any and everybody to follow its involved course. With sequences, melodies were introduced that sounded natural and easy. There were no learned twistings and turnings here, but something that all could understand and quickly learn, and, if occasion required, even hum or take part in.

Whether the laity took part in singing sequences, and if so, to what extent, can not now be determined. The special manner of executing sequences, with 2 antiphonal choirs (See below), as well as the long Latin texts, has probably precluded the participation of the laity, as a rule. But this fact did not lessen the facility with which they followed, nor diminish the affection in which they held these melodies, when their well-known tones were heard at fixed intervals upon appointed feasts.

Simultaneously with the development of the musical form of the sequence, came the development of the poetical form in the texts to these songs. The primary Notkerian prose form soon had to yield to the art of verse, where line followed line in metrical, skilfully rhymed strophes. The poetic power of these sequence poems is truly admirable, medieval Latin rises to sublime heights of poesy, creating a noble lyric treasure for the church of which it may well be proud. Contributions poured in from all sides, from all civilized countries, ever thicker and faster as time passed. The names of the majority of these poets have passed into oblivion long ago, only a few being still known. Those of the oldest school, St. Gall’s cloister, have already been mentioned. To these must be added Thomas d’Aquino, Thomas da Celano (Dies ire), and Jacopone da Todi (Stabat Mater) in Italy; in France, Pierre Abailard, Bernard de Clairvaux, and the most fertile and important of them all, Adam de Saint-Victor in Paris, who perfected the sequence in its classic form at the close of the 12" century. We even find in distant Denmark at this time a sequence writer, Andreas Sunesén, Archbishop of Lund. A great host of anony- mous writers in all countries to which the power of the church reached, swells this list of sequence poets.

The golden age of the sequence embraces the whole of the Middle Ages down to the 16" century. By referring to any one of the numerous recent collections of sequences, we may gain some idea of the enormous fertility of production at this period, (see Books of Reference). Amongst the newest and most complete is Dreves’ “Analecta hymnica medii evi”, which up to date has published 53 volumes, without having yet exhausted the supply.

SEQUENCE DISSEMINATION. TEXTUAL STRUCTURE 5

It is obvious that such great fertility would necessarily create a surplus in the course of time, since not alone every feast, but finally all the Saints each had their own sequence, these again often being different in the churches of differ- ent countries, sometimes even in the several dioceses of the same country. In a community so well organized as the Catholic church, this was naturally object- ionable, even disorderly; it is therefore explicable that the ecclesiastical authorities began to look upon the phenomenon with a certain disfavour and suspicion. This was evinced upon several occasions. As early as 1316 the ecclesiastical Council of Cologne protested against the flood of sequences; 250 years later, affairs were such that the ecclesiastical Council of Trent, which also had the reform of church music upon its program, condemned the sequence irrevocably. By decree of Pope Pius V in 1568 its days were told. All sequences, with the exception of the following, were abolished from the services of the church: for Easter, Victime paschali; Whit- sunday, Veni sancte Spiritus ; Corpus Christi, Lauda Sion salvatorem, Missa pro defunctis (Requiem), Dies ire, dies illa, the Stabat Mater dolorosa for the Feast of the Blessed Virgin “septem dolorum” being subsequently added to this number. Only these five sequences, the sole remnant of the great mediaeval flood of sequen- ces, belong to the official Ritual of the Catholic church today.

The oldest sequence texts are, as previously stated, not in rhymed verse, but in prose. However, owing to the relations between sequence melody and text, where, as already explained, the text is subordinate to the melody, the form of this prose is not free, but conforms itself to the melody. It has equally as many sylla- bles as there are tones in the melody, and possesses a certain rhythm imparted by the accented and unaccented notes of the melody. In the first prose texts, therefore, a certain rhythmical sectional division asserts itself, produced by the similar num- bers of syllables and accents, each division having one or more lines, often of un- equal length, since they had to conform to the melody. While rhyme, properly con- sidered, is not found, there often exists a symmetry of the final sounds, a con- sonance of the accented final vowels of the lines, in other words, “assonance”. The beginning of Sequence III (from the Liber daticus Lundensis), supposed to be- long to the earliest (Notker’s) time, may be suggested as an example of this form. It has the assonant a:

Alleluia nunc decantet uniuersalis ecclésia

éxtolléndo laude célsa apostolorum insignia.

The later form is of strophic structure, with decided rhythm and rhyme. The verse line usually consists of 8 syllables (sometimes 7), with 4 accents. The strophe, generally consisting of from 6 to 8 lines, is formed of 2 half-strophes, which con- stitute exactly corresponding parallels of each other, sustained by the rhymes. The rhythm is duple with disyllabic feet, usually trochaic. The rhymes are either acatalec- tic or catalectic, or most commonly a mixture of both. Usually the closing words of the half-strophes rhyme, thus: aaab—cccb.

6 MELODIC STRUCTURE

The first strophe of Sequence IV, “Missus Gabriel de celis”, may be taken as illus- trative, the strophe in this instance consisting of 8 lines in 2 half-strophes of 4 lines each, parallel in structure:

1st Half-strophe: Missus Gabriel de celis uerbi baiulus fidelis sacris disserit loquelis cum beata uirgine.

2°¢ Half-strophe: Verbum bonum et suaue pandit intus in conclaue et ex Eua formans Aue Eue uerso nomine.

In this manner the metrical scheme is adhered to throughout. Sometimes, how- ever, it happens that the number of lines of the sequence increases in the course of the poem. Example, Sequence II, the sequence for Whitsuntide by Adam de Saint- Victor, “Lux iocunda, lux insignis”. Here the strophe begins with 6 lines, increases to 8 towards the close, and at the very end to 10 lines, obviously a distinct ex- pression of crescendo in poetic flight. |

The melody corresponds closely to the plan of structure in the text, or rather we should say the melodies, since a sequence has as many melodies as there are whole strophes. The melodies are constructed also of parts or divisions similar to those of the text. The musical period and the textual half-strophe usually fall together.

Textual divisions: 1) Verseline 2) Half-strophe 3) Whole strophe Melodic divisions: 1) Section 2) Period 3) Period with Repetition.

1) The melodic section, “Colon”, (generally corresponding to 1 line of verse). The length of the section depends upon the number of syllables in the text, is long or short according as the verse line is, usually 4—12 syllables. As part of a greater unit (the period), the final note here is not necessarily the tonic, but any other inter- val of the scale in the key employed. Textual and tonal accents fall together as a rule. Exceptions may however occur, when the text is poorly adjusted to the given musical setting.

2) Periods correspond to the half-strophes of the text. The period is formed by the combination of 2, 3, 4 or more different melodic sections, which combined con- stitute the musical “sentence” with its antecedent, intermediate and consequent clauses. Generally the peridd ends upon the tonic, though sometimes upon the dominant, often clearly by intention, in order to meet the textual requirements bet- ter. In the period the musical sentence is complete. As a rule the period embraces, as above remarked, only a half-strophe of the text, and must be repeated for the following half-strophe. Occasionally the melody has a broader sweep, and may ex-

ce ee Cie

SECTION, PERIOD, REPETITION. MODES 7

tend through the second half-strophe. In the latter instance, there is no repetition. Notably in the opening and closing melodies of the sequences, we may meet peri- ods of this broader species. In the sequences here presented for consideration, an enlargement or expansion of this order takes place in Sequence I in the beginning, where the melody to the first strophe “Ab arce siderea” is not repeated, but mani- festly continued in the second strophe, “Peccatorum abstulit”; furthermore in Se- quence II in the beginning, where the first period, “Lux iocunda, lux insignis”, also is not repeated, but augmented so as to include the complete strophe of 6 lines; and finally, in the close of Sequence XI, the last melody in this sequence being formed of a greatly extended period, which is not included in the repetition.

3) Repetition is the reiteration of the musical period in its entirety for the sub- sequent half-strophe. The melody of the complete strophe is therefore: period + repetition. This system of repetition is peculiar to the sequence, being the principle of its melodic structure, used in the earliest sequences even as far back as the St. Gall’s period. Only in the introduction or at the close of sequence melodies, there are found occasional departures from this principle, probably for the purpose of bringing the beginning and the close of the sequence into stronger relief. Examples of such deviations may be seen in the recently quoted Sequences I, II and XI. Other- wise repetition is the standing rule, typical for sequences, which upon this point differ from other sacred songs, also from “Hymns”, to which subject reference will be made later. In this system we meet again the “Strophe” and “Antistrophe’” of antiquity, the execution of the song also conforming to ancient usage, with the 2 antiphonal choirs known from the earliest days of the church. We do not know whether sequences were always performed by two choirs responding to each other, but the principle of repetition naturally indicates this method of execution*), which also had the advantage of imparting more animation. Two choirs composed respect- ively of high voices, boy-choristers, and of deep voices, cantors, responded to each other with their respective half-strophes, while the beginning and end were sung by the combined choirs.

The keys are the obsolete, so-called “ecclesiastical modes”. Of these 8 mediaeval ecclesiastical modes, we generally find in our sequences only the Dorian with D as tonic, and the Mixolydian with G as tonic, giving the four following scales:

1st Ecclesiastical mode, “Dorian”, 5 eye ee ee ese ae a = tonic D. Sts i me eee ie ee 24 Ecclesiastical mode, “Hypo-dorian”, ee tonic D. Sg ast @ 7‘ Ecclesiastical mode, “Mixolydian’”, Se ee tonic G. ees ee 8th Ecclesiastical mode, -mixolydian”, = Sareea aero Rae a cclesiastical mode Hypo-mixolydian ae eae ea = tonic G. == comers cay

*) See Misset et Aubry op. cit. page 112.

8 HYMNS AND SEQUENCES

The two other ecclesiastical modes often used in Gregorian chant, the Phrygian with E and the Lydian with F as tonics, are seldom used in sequences, as also the later Jonian mode with tonic C.

The hymn is akin to the sequence. These two are often confounded with each other, though they are each of distinct species, the difference lying not alone in origin, but also in metrical structure and musical contents“).

The hymn is a direct descendant of antiquity. Notwithstanding its great popu- larity in ancient times, or perhaps particularly on account of it, the hymn was not admitted into the early Christian church, being viewed suspiciously by reason of its heathen origin and pagan associations. It was not before the 4'" or 5" century, in the times of the Church Fathers, that hymns began to be used in Christian churches. This did not occur without opposition from many sides, not least from Rome itself, in which place hymns first found their way into church services about the 12 cen- tury. The hymn still retained its pronouncedly antique character: regular construct- ion with strict adherence to metre, all the strophes being exact reproductions of the same fundamental form, and the melody kept thoroughly subject to this metrical plan. In the relations between text and tones, the antique principle obtains, the text is master, the melody servant.

The sequence, on the contrary, originated in the Middle Ages. In the construction of verses, the antique “quantitative” principle no longer ruled alone, with counting and regular alternation of long and short syllables, but also the accentual principle came into use, with its decisive stress. In this system, the syllable received validity as musical Arsis and Thesis, the verses acquiring a decided rhythm through accentuation. Furthermore, the melody was the primary element of the early forms of the se- quence, the text secondary. The verse construction was therefore subject to the melodic construction, the verses being uniform only when the musical phrase was uniform. Consequently the relation of text and tones here was exactly the opposite of the antique principle, melody as master, text as servant.

The rule for the hymn was: the same melody to all the strophes. The rule for the sequence was: different melody upon each whole strophe. The hymn has for this reason what we might call strophic melody, while the sequence is set to music throughout. The metre shows a difference also. In the hymn the usual metre is iambic, while sequence metre is trochaic.

In order that the difference between the hymn and sequence may be clearly de- fined, the lines of distinction have been sharply drawn here. In the course of time however, there have arisen intermediate transitional forms which veil this difference.

*) Ferd. Wolf: Uber die Lais, Sequenzen und Leiche. pages 86, 92 ff.

NOTATION

es NOTATION in the manuscripts under consideration is in the usual square notes, the black Nofa qguadriquarta or guadrata upon a 4 lined staff, still used in the Roman Catholic liturgy. In the 12" and 13 centuries this Latin choral nota- tion came into usage, especially in France. It gradually replaced the “Neumes”, the older medizval notation, finally superseding them entirely. In the Mss. of Sequen- ces I—III from the Liber daticus Lundensis (dating from the close of the 12 cen- tury), we find examples of the early forms of quadrate notation in France, and see the great clearness and precision with which this notation is defined from the very beginning. The other Mss. presented here are all in the same notation. Only the Ms. of Sequence IX, “Missus Gabriel de celis” in the Codex germanicus Monacen- sis 716 (15 century), has another type which still retains traces of the old Neumes, the Gothic choral notation, “Nagel”- or “Hufeisen-Schrift”. Germanic countries, with characteristic conservatism, retained this notation until the close of the Middle Ages.

Quadrate notation consists partly of single notes, partly of groups of notes. This system is an inheritance from the Neumes, which, by reason of their variation be- tween single and grouped notes, were so eminently adapted to the characteristic nature of Gregorian chant, with the constant change from rest to motion. A sheet of music of this order gives a picture in notes of the sonorous lineaments of the song, its undulations to and fro, its rising and falling, sometimes in well-defined lines, at others in successions of tones that condense into groups, which later dissolve again into their constituent elements.

The query presents itself, how ought these songs to be executed according to these notes? What are the rhythmical relations between the single notes and the groups of notes?

Here we trench upon the subject of rhythm in medizval liturgic song, which at present has come into great prominence, and is a matter of eager literary discussion. Upon the solution of this problem depends the important question of the correct performance of the Gregorian chant, which by recent decrees of Pope Pius X is again made the cornerstone of Roman Catholic liturgic song. In the centuries between our time and the Middle Ages, Gregorian chant has, for many reasons, been neglected, and especially become quite distorted rhythmically. It behooves us, therefore, to clear up this question of rhythm, so that this ancient song of the

early church may again take on its pristine form. 2

10 QUESTION OF RHYTHM

There are advanced two opposing theories upon this point: “free oratorical rhythm” against “time rhythm”. Upon one side we meet those who agree with the publishers of the great work “Paléographie musicale”, the French Benedictines in Solesmes, and their chief writers, Dom André Moquereau*), Dom J. Pothier**) and Peter Wagner***). They declare that the different forms of musical notation in quadrate type, single notes or groups, are rhythmically indifferent. Upon the other side are those who, with A. Dechevrens, G. Houdard, E. Bernoulli, Oskar Fleischer and Hugo Riemann as leaders, are adherents of the “time” rhythm theory. These latter propose the following rhythmical system in the rendition of quadrate notes, viz: the single notes form the rhythmical units, the groups of notes on the other hand - representing the respective fractional parts of these units. The discussion of these theories still continues, argument upon argument appearing from the different sides. We agree with the Benedictine theory upon this point.

The problem is: “rhythm” contra “time”. For these two things are far from being identical, as might be supposed. Rhythm and time may often coincide, though they can also often differ, in the same musical composition. Different rhythms may be formed of similarly constructed measures of time, whilst on the other hand a per- fectly rhythmical melody may not contorm to strict time. Time, the representa- tive of equal, unchanging time-units, is the narrower conception, rhythm the broader. Music may exist either with or without time.

Free oratorical rhythm, which specially characterizes Gregorian chant, is timeless. It forms the vocal counterpart of rhythm in speech-delivery, its sonorous supple- ment, since it arises out of the rhythm imparted by the natural declamation of the text. Free oratorical rhythm is therefore extremely vivid, ever changing, and nearly related to the text, which it follows minutely in its entire emphatic declamation. It remains without the confines of time, since it can not be measured numerically, born as it is in the moment when tone and word unite. It fashions itself according to the phrasing of the musical sentence in the tonal progression.

A detailed explanation of the workings of oratorical rhythm can not be given briefly. It is true that manuals treating of Gregorian chant, (see Books of Reference), give a number of specified rules, which however are mostly of use to those already conversant with the subject. Its complete mastery requires much practical exercise.

Notation in medizval Mss. is therefore rhythmically indifferent, or, as it may be more clearly expressed, timeless. It possesses no rhythmic value of its own, furnish- ing only the musical raw material for the rhythm. It becomes rhythmic only in the moment when sung, the rhythmical value it then receives depending upon the place it occupies, both in the melody and in the text's own individual rhythm.

*) Le nombre musical Grégorien. I. 1908. **) Les mélodics Grégoriennes, pages 196—234.

***) Neumenkunde, pages 211—-250. His newest contribution upon the subject may be found in “Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothck Peters” 1910, page 13ff. Refer also to Guido Adler: Der Stil in der Musik, 1911, page 70 ff., 104 f.

PRACTICAL EXECUTION 11

In the instances presented here, the rhythmic problem is easier to solve. We are only concerned with sequences having metrical texts, not with Gregorian chants to prose texts. It is obvious that the metre of the verse must be determinative of the musical rhythm in all cases of strictly metrical texts. Without metre we could not properly render the texts of the sequences. It is furthermore manifest that the linguistic art, brought to such great perfection for the sake of the versification, is not thus employed only to be immediately destroyed by a melody which does not suit the metre of the verse. This opinion is greatly strengthened by a closer inspect- ion of the constructive contents of the sequence melodies themselves. These con- tents cover the textual metre entirely, single and grouped notes, with or without accents, following the scansion of the versefeet. The metre of the text is the skel- eton, which supports the body of the music. The metre, generally trochaic dimetre, catalectic or acatalectic, can easily be kept intact throughout.

A melody of this order, confined within regular metrical bounds, loses something of its free oratorical or timeless character and approximates measured time, as will be seen. Guido d’Arezzo (died 1030), the most celebrated of all the early mu- sical pedagogues, draws attention to this fact when he remarks, that there are metrical